Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British Geneticist and Statistician who was born on February 17, 1890 in London. It obtained important results in the field of population genetics, modernizing the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin. In addition, Fisher is considered one of the parents and the founder of modern statistics. He worked with frequency curve adjustments, with correlation coefficients (the so-called Fisher coefficients) in variance analysis and one-parameter estimation techniques. It was influenced by the work of Karl Pearson, another leading British geneticist and statistician.
Ronald Fisher used the results he obtained in statistics as tools for application in his studies of genetics, being today considered one of the biggest names in the theory of statistics and statistics applied to biology. Fisher invented revolutionary techniques for the application of statistics in the natural sciences. He discovered methods for optimizing the evaluation of empirical results.
Among his most important discoveries is the variance analysis technique (ANOVA), which demonstrates how a limited number of experiments can be sufficient to determine generic laws considering several variables at once; the extreme value theory (extreme value theory), which shows how to predict the most severe form of an accident or disaster based on past occurrences; and the P-value (P-value). which serves as a rigorous numerical measure of the reliability of a data sample as a source of scientific prediction.
He received a BA degree in astronomy from Cambridge University in 1912. Among the subjects Fisher studied at Cambridge was George Airy's error theory. This study was the beginning of Fisher's interest in statistics. Many of his most important contributions were developed while he was at Rothamsted Agricultural Experimental Station, including his work on analysis of variance, hypothesis testing, maximum likelihood method, and design of experiments.
Fisher was elected to the Royal Society in 1929, and in the course of his career received most of the society's prestigious awards: the Royal Medal (1938), the Darwin Medal (1948), and the Copley Medal (1955). He was the professor of Eugenia, developed by Francis Galton at University College in London in 1933. He died on July 29, 1962 in Adelaide, Australia.